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Take a look at Oetzi the Iceman, who is believed to have lived 5700 years ago. He is dressed in skins, but no woven items. There is evidence of twining, sewing and some kind of netting among his equipment, but no explicit demonstration of the skill of weaving. The fibers in his equipment were bast, grass and sinew. His "baskets" were made of birch bark sewn into shape with bast, rather than being woven as we understand basketry.
By the Roman period, spinning and weaving were familiiar skills, and these skills were not lost during the Middle Ages and Renaissance. However, increasingly sophisticated techniques and methods of production were developed in the time period of the SCA. The spindle wheel was brought into use to supplement the spindle, and later still the flyer wheel began its development, reaching its final form with the addition of the treadle in the very late 16th century or in the 17th century. The warp-weighted loom and other vertical-warp looms were gradually supplanted by the horizontal-warp loom. Fulling mills were developed to mechanically full cloth using water power during the Middle Ages.
Textiles were very valuable in the Middle Ages, because so many hours of handwork went into them. Inventories of estates and will often list textiles and textile items precisely because of their value.
For woolen textiles, the sheep would be cared for, the wool sheared from the sheep, cleaned and prepared for spinning (usually combing or carding), spun, then used as warp or weft on a loom. After the textile was created, further cleaning and other processes, like fulling was applied to the cloth before it was cut and sewed into a final object. Somewhere in the process, most wool fiber was dyed, whether it was while still in the form of fiber, yarn or fabric.
For linen textiles, the flax would be grown, harvested, retted or rotted, then go through an intensive, multi-step processing to separate the usable bast fibers from the "woody" bits of plant material. Then it, like wool would be spun and woven and finished. Two common finishing processes done to linen cloth were bleaching and beetling.
Nettles was said to yield a bast fiber like linen.
Silk was produced primarily in Asia and imported into Europe, though Italy did develop a silk industry around the Renaissance era. There are many beautiful patterned silks preserved in church treasuries from the Middle Ages.
Cotton was grown around the Mediterranean basin, and some was certainly made into cloth, but it didn't become a common fiber in the Middle Ages except perhaps in certain areas or for specific uses.
- SCA-Spinning http://groups.yahoo.com/group/SCA-Spinning/
- SCA Basketry http://groups.yahoo.com/group/SCAbasketry/
- SCA Felting http://groups.yahoo.com/group/SCA-Felting/
- SCA Cardweaving http://groups.yahoo.com/group/SCA-Card-Weaving/
- Medieval Spinsters http://groups.yahoo.com/group/medievalspinsters/
- Nalbinding http://groups.yahoo.com/group/nalbinding/
- SCA Natural Dyes http://groups.yahoo.com/group/SCA_NaturalDyes/
Historical Needlework Resources http://medieval.webcon.net.au/